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The Daiva Paramparā (Divine Lineage)
Bhagavan Sri Paramaśiva
Paramaśiva, the Cosmic Source and ultimate Divinity, started the lineage of Akhāḍās with the ascetic warriors (Nāgā Sādhus) along with His direct disciples and descendants - called the Paramaśiva Ganas. ( https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/paramashiva;)
It is from Bhagavan Sri Paramaśiva, the Primordial Source, came forth the most ancient living lineage of ĀdiŚaiva traditions and sanyas (monkhood) called ‘Akhāḍās’ of ascetic warriors who defend the land and Dharma (the Cosmic law). Paramaśiva came down to the sacred city of Varanasi in North India with his empowered direct disciples (Śiva ganas) and sons Śrī Kumara and Śrī Gaṇeśa (king of Gaṇas, followers of Paramaśiva) and established the eternal unbroken spiritual flow of ascetics, forming the first Akhāḍā.
The Original Akhāḍā Structure
Daksha (Son of Lord Brahma) was called Daksha Prajapati as he functioned as the President of humanity during his times. He delivered the Daksha Smṛti - The Do's and Dont's - for Humanity. He organised a massive Yaga (sacrificial fire) for which he deliberately avoided calling his daughter Sati and Her Divine Consort Paramaśiva Himself. When Sati, pulled by parental bonding, went by herself to the Yaga, Daksha further insulted her in front of the entire gathering. Sati unable to withstand the insult of her own father, self-immolated herself in the sacrificial fire. News reached Paramaśiva, who invoked Vīrabhadra to slay Daksha's head.
Daksha fell low in the eyes of all after this incident. The Sapta Rishis refused to henceforth follow Daksha Smṛti as they saw that Daksha was no more integrated to Paramaśiva, (Primordial Hindu Divinity). They requested Paramaśiva to reveal the guidelines yet again to them so they can follow. The sacred spot where Paramaśiva revealed the Agamas to them, is the Daksheshwar temple of Mayapur in Haridwar, where the Kailaasa Paramparagatha Mahanirvani Peetham (spiritual and religious kingdom) is headquartered. Even from during the times of Daksha, this temple was the headquarters of the Peetha.
After revealing the Agamas, Paramaśiva appointed Sage Kapila as the Head of the Mahanirvani Peetha, thus establishing the Mahanirvani Peetha.
Thus, Bhagavān Sri Paramaśiva, the ultimate Divinity, institutionalized the constitution, administration and protection for this enlightened ecosystem on the planet by establishing the ‘Akhāḍās’ (traditions within Hinduism) with His direct disciples and descendants called the Paramaśiva Gaṇas and warrior ascetics (Nāgās) from Varanasi, the most ancient living city of earth. Under His divine ordainment, the spiritual, religious, historical, political, economic and social ecosystems were formally established. (Ref.: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akhara).
Incarnation of Paramaśiva and Lord Viṣṇu, from the Sūrya vaṁśa, the Sun dynasty
Lord Śri Kapila Mahāmuni is the incarnation of Lord Śrī Paramaśiva and Lord Viṣṇu, who appeared in the Sūrya vaṁśa, the sun-dynasty as the son of glorious Prajāpati Kardama, one of the nine sons of Lord Brahma and procreator of human life on planet earth and as the son of Devāhuti, the daughter of the reigning Manu Svayambhuva (the lord of the first manvantara or aeon) the original ancestor of the Sūrya vaṃśa, the Sun Dynasty.
Srimad Bhagavat Purāṇa, the Hindu scripture (purāṇas are scriptures that record the historical happenings of cosmos, of cosmic laws (dharma), of all incarnations) gives detailed accounts about Śrī Kapila’s divine lineage and His purpose:
Lord Kapila Mahāmuni is an Incarnation वेदाहमाद्यं पुरुषमवतीर्णं स्वमायया भूतानां शेवधिं देहं बिभ्राणं कपिलं मुने ॥ ३.२४.१६ ॥ vedāham ādyaṁ puruṣam avatīrṇaṁ sva-māyayā | bhūtānāṁ śevadhiṁ dehaṁ bibhrāṇaṁ kapilaṁ mune || ~ Śrimad Bhāgavatam 3.24.16 Translation: Lord Brahma said to his son Kardama - Kardama, I know that the original Divinity has now appeared as an incarnation by His internal energy. He is the bestower of all that is desired by the living entities, and He has now assumed the body of Kapila Muni.
Lord Kapila Mahāmuni transmitted the ultimate enlightenment sciences, Jnana-Vijnana Yoga ज्ञानविज्ञानयोगेन कर्मणामुद्धरन्जटाः हिरण्यकेशः पद्माक्षः पद्ममुद्रापदाम्बुजः ॥ ३.२४.१७ ॥ Jñāna-vijñāna-yogena karmaṇām uddharan jaṭāḥ hiraṇya-keśaḥ padmākṣaḥ padma-mudrā-padāmbujaḥ ||
~ Śrimad Bhāgavatam 3.24.19
Translation: Lord Brahmā said, “By ultimate yoga of Jñāna, the pure knowledge of enlightenment and vijñāna, transmitting the realization of enlightenment sciences as ordained in the scriptures, Kapila Muni, who is characterized by His golden hair, His eyes just like lotus petals and His lotus feet, which bear the marks of lotus flowers, will uproot the deep-rooted desire for work in this material world.”
Manu’s daughters are Devahuti and Prasūti मैत्रेय उवाच । मनोस्तु शतरूपायां तिस्रः कन्याश्च जज्ञिरे आकूतिर्देवहूतिश्च प्रसूतिरिति विश्रुताः ॥ ४.१.१ ॥ maitreya uvāca manos tu śatarūpāyāṁ tisraḥ kanyāś ca jajñire ākūtir devahūtiś ca prasūtir iti viśrutāḥ ~ Śrimad Bhāgavatam 4.1.1 Translation: Śrī Maitreya said: Svāyambhuva Manu begot three daughters in his wife, Śatarūpā, and their names were Ākūti, Devahūti and Prasūti.
Daksha’s wife is Prasūti (establishing Daksha in the lineage of Manu) दक्षाय ब्रह्मपुत्राय प्रसूतिं भगवान्मनुः प्रायच्छद्यत्कृतः सर्गस्त्रिलोक्यां विततो महान् ॥ ४.१.११ ॥ dakṣāya brahma-putrāya prasūtiṁ bhagavān manuḥ prāyacchad yat-kṛtaḥ sargas tri-lokyāṁ vitato mahān ~ Śrimad Bhāgavatam 4.1.11 Translation: Svāyambhuva Manu handed over his daughter Prasūti to the son of Brahmā named Dakṣa, who was also one of the progenitors of the living entities. The descendants of Dakṣa are spread throughout the three worlds. Svāyambhuva Manu handed over his daughter Prasūti to the son of Brahmā named Dakṣa, who was also one of the progenitors of the living entities. The descendants of Dakṣa are spread throughout the three worlds.
Anasūya (mother of Lord Dattatreya) is daughter of Prajapati Kardama Muni & Devahuti (and sister of Bhagavan Kapila Mahamuni as per verses 3.24.18-19) याः कर्दमसुताः प्रोक्ता नव ब्रह्मर्षिपत्नयः तासां प्रसूतिप्रसवं प्रोच्यमानं निबोध मे ॥ ४.१.१२ ॥ yāḥ kardama-sutāḥ proktā. nava brahmarṣi-patnayaḥ tāsāṁ prasūti-prasavaṁ procyamānaṁ nibodha me ~ Śrimad Bhāgavatam 4.1.12 Translation: You have already been informed about the nine daughters of Kardama Muni and Devāhuti, who were handed over in marriage to nine different Brahmarṣi, Pure Enlightened Sages (namely Marīci, Atri, Aṅgirā, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhṛgu, Vasiṣṭha and Atharvā.. I shall now describe the descendants of those nine daughters (Kala, Anasūyā, Sraddha, Havirbhu, Gitā, Kriya, Khyāti, Arundhati and Shanti)
Anasūyā is the Mother of Bhagavan Dattatreya, the Incarnation (establishing Dattatreya in the lineage of Manu) अत्रेः पत्न्यनसूया त्रीञ्जज्ञे सुयशसः सुतान् दत्तं दुर्वाससं सोममात्मेशब्रह्मसम्भवान् ॥ ४.१.१५ ॥ atreḥ patny anasūyā trīñ jajñe suyaśasaḥ sutān dattaṁ durvāsasaṁ somam ātmeśa-brahma-sambhavān ~ Śrimad Bhāgavatam 4.1.15 Translation: Anasūyā, the wife of Atri Muni, gave birth to three very famous sons — Soma, Dattātreya and Durvāsā — who were partial representations of Lord Viṣṇu, Lord Śiva and Lord Brahmā. Soma was a partial representation of Lord Brahmā, Dattātreya was a partial representation of Lord Viṣṇu, and Durvāsā was a partial representation of Lord Śiva.
Devāhuti, the daughter of the Sūrya Vaṃsa (Sun dynasty’s) original Manu, is mother of Lord Kapila. Lord Kapila Mahāmuni is the Siddhagaṇadhīśa, the emperor of perfected beings (establishing Kapila in the lineage of Manu) एष मानवि ते गर्भं प्रविष्टः कैटभार्दनः
अविद्यासंशयग्रन्थिं छित्त्वा गां विचरिष्यति ॥ ३.२४.१८ ॥
eṣa mānavi te garbhaṁ praviṣṭaḥ kaiṭabhārdanaḥ avidyā-saṁśaya-granthiṁ chittvā gāṁ vicariṣyati अयं सिद्धगणाधीशः साङ्ख्याचार्यैः सुसम्मतः लोके कपिल इत्याख्यां गन्ता ते कीर्तिवर्धनः ॥ ३.२४.१९ ॥ ayaṁ siddha-gaṇādhīśaḥ sāṅkhyācāryaiḥ susammataḥ loke kapila ity ākhyāṁ gantā te kīrti-vardhanaḥ
~ Śrimad Bhāgavatam 3.24.18-19
Translation: Lord Brahmā then told Devahūti: My dear daughter of Manu, the same Absolute Lord who killed the demon Kaiṭabha is now within your womb. He will cut off all the knots of your ignorance and doubt. Then He will travel all over the world. “Your son will be the emperor of all the perfected being, Siddhagaṇadhīśa. He will be approved by the Acāryas, the spiritual authorities, experts in transmitting the real absolute knowledge, and among the people He will be gloriously celebrated by the name Kapila. As the son of Devahūti, He will increase your fame.”